AHEAD European Archive of Historical EArthquake Data

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OGC WFS and WMS event parameters web services

The AHEAD OGC WFS and WMS services provides the EPICA v1.1 1000-1899 catalogue, the European PreInstrumental earthquake CAtalogue.

Data citation:
Rovida A., Antonucci A. (2021). EPICA - European PreInstrumental earthquake CAtalogue, version 1.1. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). https://doi.org/10.13127/epica.1.1.

Use of data retrieved from OGC web services in a GIS

The OGC standard is well supported by GIS software such as ESRI ArcMap and QGIS.



Query examples

Here you may find some example of the possible queries offered by OGC web services.
Please, refer to the corresponding manuals at OGC, either for the WFS or the WMS, for a complete overview of their standards.

Web service capabilities

Get a map

Available style (WMS only)

Features description


Request a specific earthquake using the AHEAD event ID

Request all earthquakes having magnitude (Mw) greater than 6

The WFS has GML as the default format for encoding data. If you would like to obtain a result encoded using a different format, you may add the parameter "&outputFormat=".

Here the list of supported output formats:

Field descriptions of the table

EqID Earthquake number: unique identifier of the catalogue entry, from AHEAD
SheecID SHEEC earthquake number: ID of SHEEC 1000-1899 v. 3.3
Earthquake origin time and area
Year Origin time: year (from the MDPs source, when available, or from the source catalogue)
Mo Origin time: month (from the MDPs source, when available, or from the source catalogue)
Da Origin time: day (from the MDPs source, when available, or from the source catalogue)
Ho Origin time: hour (from the MDPs source, when available, or from the source catalogue)
Mi Origin time: minutes (from the MDPs source, when available, or from the source catalogue)
Ax Epicentral area (from the MDPs source or from the source catalogue, when available)
Reg Region of macroseismic intensity attenuation: assessed with the purpose of calibrating the MDPs methods, Boxer, B&W, MEEP, and deriving Mw(Io) regressions (see Stucchi et al., 2013) 
ICE: Iceland
SCR: Stable Continental
WAP: Western Alps and Pyrenees
BET: Betic
APD: Apennines, North-Eastern Alps and Dinarides
IVA: Italian Volcanic Areas
VRD: Vrancea, deep events
BAS: Broad Aegean, shallow
BAI: Broad Aegean, intermediate
TSZ: Transform Source Zone offshore Portugal
Lat Epicentral latitude [decimal degrees], see Tepi
Lon Epicentral longitude [decimal degrees], see Tepi
TEpi Type of determination of the epicentre:
bx: from MDPs with Boxer
bw: from MDPs with B&W
me: from MDPs with MEEP
cat: from the source catalogue (see CatSource)
pr: preliminary epicentre of the events without magnitude determination
LatUnc Epicentral latitude uncertainty [km], see TepiUnc
LonUnc Epicentral longitude uncertainty [km], see TepiUnc
TEpiUnc Type of determination of epicentre uncertainty:
orig: taken from the source catalogue or determined from MDPs (according to TEpi) 
conv: converted into km from the source catalogue
def: assigned value
H Depth [km]
HUnc Depth uncertainty [km]
TH Type of determination of the depth :
cat: from the source catalogue
me: determination from MDPs, with MEEP
Io Epicentral intensity
TIo Type of epicentral intensity determination:
cat: from the source catalogue
bx: from MDPs, with Boxer
Mw Moment magnitude
MwUnc Moment magnitude uncertainty
TMw Origin of moment magnitude and its uncertainty:
wm: weighted mean of Mw from MDPs and from the source catalogue
MMw: determined from MDPs processing
CMw: determined processing the original parameters of the source catalogue
nd: not determined
Macroseismic Data (MDPs)
MDPsSource Code of the MDPs source for the entry. It provides the date of the
earthquake and the MDPs processed for determining the earthquake parameters
NMDP Number of Macroseismic Data Points in MDPsSource
Ix Maximum intensity in MDPsSource
MMw Moment magnitude from the processing of MDPs
MMwUnc Mw uncertainty from the processing of MDPs
TMMw Method of Mw determination from MDPs:
bx: with Boxer
bw: with B&W
me: with MEEP
Regional catalogue
CatSource Code of the source catalogue for the entry. It provides the date of the earthquake and earthquake parameters  when MDPsSource is empty
CIo Epicentral intensity from the source catalogue
CMw Moment magnitude from the source catalogue
CMwUnc Mw uncertainty associated to the moment magnitude from the source catalogue
CTMw Type of Mw determination from the source catalogue:
Wor: Mw taken from the source catalogue
RIo: converted from Io with Mw(Io) regressions
Ms: considered equivalent to Ms
Gra09: converted from ML according to Grünthal et al. (2009)
wa: unspecified magnitude assumed equivalent to Mw



Bakun WH, Wentworth CM (1997) Estimating earthquake location and magnitude from seismic intensity data. Bull Seismol Soc Am 87:1502–1521.

Gasperini P., Bernardini F., Valensise G., Boschi E. (1999). Defining seismogenic sources from historical earthquake felt reports. Bull Seismol Soc Am 89:94–110.

Gasperini P., Vannucci G., Tripone D., Boschi E. (2010). The location and sizing of historical earthquakes using the attenuation of macroseismic intensity with distance. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100:2035–2066.

Grünthal G, Wahlström R, Stromeyer D (2009a) The unified catalogue of earthquakes in central, northern, and northwestern Europe (CENEC)—updated and expanded to the last millennium. J Seismol 13:517–541. DOI: 10.1007/s10950-008-9144-9

Musson RMW, Jiménez MJ (2008) Macroseismic estimation of earthquake parameters. NA4 deliverable D3, NERIES Project.

Stucchi et al., 2012. The SHARE European Earthquake Catalogue (SHEEC) 1000–1899. Journal of Seismology, DOI: 10.1007/s10950-012-9335-2