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Macroseismic Intensity Data Online Publisher
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Input data table formats

The Deliverable 4 "European Macroseismic Database" of the NERIES NA4 project called “European macroseismic database 1000-1600, M > 5.0” and its continuation in Deliverable 7 part 1 “European Macroseismic Database 1000-1750, M > 5.0” tries to establish a series of guidelines for macroseismic data compilation and validation.

MIDOP has been designed by the AHEAD Working Group and adopts all of its guidelines and it is currently used for publishing intensity maps of AHEAD (the European Archive of Historical Earthquake Data).

Field names presented in this page are merely a suggestion as MIDOP is able of associating any field contained in your table.

Please, note that there are restrinction rules within the field name, common rules while dealing with database tables:

The following symbols are used in this page:

List of tables:

Earthquake catalogue table

The earthquake catalogue table contains the complete list of earthquakes that you are going to publish within MIDOP. It contains all the information about the whole earthquake, such as the origin time, the epicentral area and the source of information from which data are taken.

Field Description Type
EQid *
Earthquake unique identifier.
Trailing spaces and special characters must be avoided (a simple integer number is advisable).
(field used retrieving all the corresponding macroseismic intensity points)
text or number
Year * Time of the event (year). Note that negative values are accepted. integer
Mo * Time of the event (month). integer
Da * Time of the event (day). integer
Ho * Time of the event (hours). integer
Mi * Time of the event (minutes). integer
Se * Time of the event (seconds). integer
Ct Comment to time. text
Ax Denomination of the area where the largest effects are located. text
AxShort Denomination of the area where the largest effects are located (shortened).
(field useful for html tables that have a character space constraint)
text
Et Earthquake type.
Allowed values are: earthquake, induced earthquake, quarry blast, explosion, chemical explosion, nuclear explosion, landslide, rockslide, snow avalanche, debris avalanche, mine collapse, building collapse, volcanic eruption, meteor impact, plane crash, sonic boom, not existing, other, null
text
EQdeaths People died during the earthquake. text
EQinjured The number of people injured during the earthquake. text
EQlink Link to an external webpage with more information about the earthquake. text
EQnotes Useful notes about the earthquake. long text
MDPsetID *
MDP dataset identifier.
(field used to link to the corresponding list of MDPs. In our experience the identifier of an earthquake differs from the identifier of a MDP dataset, but in your case you may decide that the two identifiers are the same)
text
StudyShort Short bibliographical citation of the MDP dataset, mentioning the main author and the date of study publication
(e.g.: Stucchi M., 2009 - Stucchi & Locati, 2009 - Stucchi et al., 2009)
text
StudyCode
An extremely simplified code representing the above study.
Trailing spaces and special characters must be avoided.
(field used to link to the corresponding record in the earthquake studies table and used for naming study related PDFs and images)
text or number

Epicenters and magnitudes

The earthquake catalogue table may contain a section with information about epicentres and magnitudes: if you want to plot such epicentres with MIDOP, you must add an additional set of fields to the catalogue table in order to describe the epicentre parameters. Below the list of available epicentre descriptors:

Field Description Type
EpLabel * Epicentre label (will appear within the earthquake information frame). text
EpSource Epicentre location source. text
EpLat * Epicentre latitude (geographic coordinates in decimal degree). decimal
EpLon * Epicentre longitude (geographic coordinates in decimal degree). decimal
EpUncRadius Circular confidence region, expression of the horizontal uncertainty associated with the calculation of the epicentre. The value must expressed in meters. text
EpUncEllipseAxisMajor Major axis of the confidence ellipsoid, representing the location uncertainty associated with the calculation of the epicentre. The value must expressed in meters. text
EpUncEllipseAxisMinor Minor axis of the confidence ellipsoid, representing the location uncertainty associated with the calculation of the epicentre. The value must expressed in meters. text
EpUncEllipseAzimuth Azimuth of the confidence ellipsoid, representing the location uncertainty associated with the calculation of the epicentre. text
EpIntensityScale The macroseismic intensity scale used for assessing the epicentral intensity.
e.g. MCS (Mercalli Cancani Sieberg), MM (Modified Mercalli), EMS98 (European Macroseismic Scale 1998), MSK64 or MSK81 (Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik).
text
EpIntensity Epicentral intensity, expressed using a macroseismic intensity scale, such as MCS(Mercalli Cancani Sieberg) MM (Modified Mercalli), EMS98 (European Macroseismic Scale 1998), MSK (Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik) (e.g.: 6, 6-7, 7, 7-8, …). text
EpIntensityNum Epicentral intensity, expressed as pure numerical value (e.g.: 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, …). decimal
EpMagSource Magnitude source (e.g.: references to a published paper). text
EpMagStatus Magnitude evaluation status. Allowed values are: preliminary, confirmed, reviewed, final, rejected. text
EpMagMethod Magnitude evaluation method. text
EpMagType Magnitude type (how the epicentre is obtained: manually or if calculated, the adopted method, mentioning the reference published paper or, at least, a descriptive text). text
EpMag Magnitude (might contains also text). text
EpMagNum Magnitude, expressed as pure numerical value. decimal
EpMagUnc Magnitude associated estimation uncertainty. text
EpDepth Hypocenter depth, expressed in kilometers. text
EpDepthUnc Hypocenter depth associated uncertainty. text
EpBox Box representing the surface projection of the sismogenic source. The field must be compiled with 4 couple of coordinates expressed in decimal degree. Use ";" to separate each couple of coordinates and "_" to separated longitude and latitude: lon1_lat1; lon2_lat2; lon3_lat3; lon4_lat4. text

MIDOP allows more than one epicentre, each one represented with a different symbol.
In order to add another epicentre, another set of dedicated fields must be added to the catalogue table. Remember that within the same table two fields cannot have the same name, so you will have to change it, for instance by adding a progressing number (e.g.: Ep2Label, Ep2Source, Ep2Lal, Ep2Lon, Ep2Intensity, ...).

MDP (Macroseismic Data Point) table

The macroseismic intensity data table stores the complete list of Macroseismic Data Point (MDP) for each earthquake. Their scope is to describe as much as possible all those information retrieved in the original published earthquake study about places where the earthquake was felt.

Field Description Type
MDPsetID *
MDP dataset unique identifier.
(field used in order to link the corresponding earthquake in the catalogue table)
text or number
MDPid *
Macroseismic Data Point (MDP) unique identifier.
Trailing spaces and special characters must be avoided (a simple integer number is advisable).
text or number
PlaceID
Place unique identifier.
It must be the same in every earthquake where the place is mentioned. Trailing spaces and special characters must be avoided (a simple integer number is advisable).
It may differ from the original gazetteer identifier used for retrieving the place coordinates.
(field used in order to generate place seismic histories: if not specified the “query by place” will not be available)
text or number
PlaceName Place name text
PlaceNameShort Place name (shortened).
(field used for html tables that have a character space constrain)
text
PlaceNameSource Place name as found in the historical source. text
PlaceSC Place special case.
See the two characters code reference listed in the table below.
text
PlaceLat * Place latitude in geographical coordinates in decimal degree.
(field used for plotting the place)
decimal
PlaceLon * Place longitude in geographical coordinates in decimal degree.
(field used for plotting the place)
decimal
IntensityScale The macroseismic intensity scale used for assessing the intensity.
e.g. MCS (Mercalli Cancani Sieberg), MM (Modified Mercalli), EMS98 (European Macroseismic Scale 1998), MSK64 or MSK81 (Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik).
text
Intensity * Macroseismic intensity expressed using a macroseismic scale.
Some unconventional descriptive code is accepted, see table below.
text
IntensityNum * Numerical value corresponding to the expressed intensity.
(field used for sorting tables and layering by intensity the plotted MDP on the earthquake map)
decimal
Reliability Reliability (as available from the convention in use locally). text
Reports Number of reports used to assess the intensity. text
EffectsEnv List of effects on the environment caused or associated to the earthquake (e.g. explosion, felt, fire, flood, geyser activity, ground cracking, landslide, liquefaction, mine collapse, sand blow, seiche, sounds, subsidence, tsunami, uplift, volcanic activity, other). Use a semicolon to separate multiple effects. text
EffectsInfr List of effects on infrastructures caused or associated to the earthquake (e.g. bridges, drainage, electricity, gas, railway, roads, sanitation, telecommunications, water supply, other). Use a semicolon to separate multiple effects. text
MDPdeaths People died in the place during the earthquake. text
MDPinjured The number of people injured in the place during the earthquake. text
Country The country code of the locality as described in the ISO 3166-1 (see the reference table below). text
Admin1code First order country administrative division code (e.g. region code for Italy). text
Admin1name First order country administrative division name (e.g. region name for Italy). text
Admin2code Second order country administrative division code (e.g. province code for Italy). text
Admin2name Second order country administrative division name (e.g. province name for Italy). text
Admin3code Third order country administrative division code (e.g. ISTAT code for Italy). text
Admin3name Third order country administrative division name (e.g. comune name for Italy). text
MDPlink Link to an external webpage with more information about the MDP. text
MDPnotes Useful notes about the MDP.
(it may be useful for keeping trace on how the intensity was assessed, which were the information taken into account, or simply for keeping trace on notes about the place, as they were reported in the historical sources)
long text

Further information about geographical Gazetteers can be found in a very interesting reading: "Georeferencing: The Geographical Associations of Information" [Hill L., 2006].

For your convenience, below is reported the simplified and generalized European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98, [Grünthal et al., 1998]) which is nowadays the recommended macroseismic scale to be used while assessing intensities.

EMS-98
intensity
Definition Description of typical observed effects (abstracted)
1 Not felt Not felt.
2 Scarcely felt Felt only by very few individual people at rest in houses.
3 Weak Felt indoors by a few people. People at rest feel a swaying or light trembling.
4 Largely observed Felt indoors by many people, outdoors by very few. A few people are awakened. Windows, doors and dishes rattle.
5 Strong Felt indoors by most, outdoors by few. Many sleeping people awake. A few are frightened. Buildings tremble throughout. Hanging objects swing considerably. Small objects are shifted. Doors and windows swing open or shut.
6 Slightly damaging Many people are frightened and run outdoors. Some objects fall. Many houses suffer slight non-structural damage like hair-line cracks and fall of small pieces of plaster.
7 Damaging Most people are frightened and run outdoors. Furniture is shifted and objects fall from shelves in large numbers. Many well built ordinary buildings suffer moderate damage: small cracks in walls, fall of plaster, parts of chimneys fall down; older buildings may show large cracks in walls and failure of fill-in walls.
8 Heavily damaging Many people find it difficult to stand. Many houses have large cracks in walls. A few well built ordinary buildings show serious failure of walls, while weak older structures may collapse.
9 Destructive General panic. Many weak constructions collapse. Even well built ordinary buildings show very heavy damage: serious failure of walls and partial structural failure.
10 Very destructive Many ordinary well built buildings collapse.
11 Devastating Most ordinary well built buildings collapse, even some with good earthquake resistant design are destroyed.
12 Completely devastating Almost all buildings are destroyed.

Notes on the intensity notation:

Unconventional macroseismic descriptive codes reference table (extracted from NERIES NA4 Deliverable 7 part 1):

Code Unconventional macroseismic descriptive code description
NR Not Reported in the source.
NC Not Classified, there is no enough information in the source describing the effects.
E Environmental effects on the terrain (e.g.: landslide, liquefaction).
W Environmental effects on water bodies (e.g.: effects produced by tsunamis).
NF Not Felt.
SF Slightly Felt.
F Felt.
HF Highly Felt.
SD Slightly Damaged.
D Damage.
HD Heavily Damaged, destruction, extensive damage or total collapse .
Code Special case Description Problem Epicentral parameters assessment notes
TE large area,
territory
area containing several localities; the size of the area exceeds the one suggested by the EMS98 intensity assignment is not compatible with the definition of intensity and any location would be arbitrary coordinates and intensity must not be assessed. F, D or HD and arbitrary coordinates, only for graphical representation, should be assessed. These MDPs must not be used for earthquake parameters determination.
UL unknown
(not located)  locality
a place which both the author of the study and the MDP compiler is not able to locate today coordinates cannot be assigned these MDPs cannot be used for earthquake parameters determination
SS small settlement settlement the size of which is too small to supply a significant building sample for intensity assessment intensity assignment is not compatible with the statistical meaning of intensity coordinates are assessed; F, D or HD are assessed.
As a first choice these MDPs should not be used for earthquake parameters determination
IB isolated building single (isolated) building. A building standing alone, like a light tower, a country church etc. intensity assignment is not compatible with the statistical meaning of intensity coordinates are assessed; F, G3, G4 or G5 (grade damage of the EMS98) are assessed.
These MDPs should not be used for earthquake parameters determination
MS multiple settlement settlement whose traditional place name refers to a set of small settlements in a limited area, including small islands information may not strictly refer to the place name. However, no better interpretation can be provided assess intensity and coordinates.
The code represents a warning for the user
DL deserted locality abandoned locality, eventually rebuilt elsewhere with the same or another name the seismic history may show interruptions or non seismic gaps assess intensity and coordinates.
The code is a warning for understanding the seismic history
AL absorbed locality a locality absorbed into a larger one same as above assess intensity and coordinates.
The code is a warning for understanding the seismic history
CQ city
quarter
information related to part of a city place name and the coordinates may be somewhat arbitrary assess Is and coordinates.
The code is a warning for understanding the seismic history

List of country codes as in the ISO 3166-1 standard:

North America
Canada CA
Greenland GL
Mexico MX
Saint Pierre and Miquelon PM
United States US
 
Central America
Belize BZ
Costa Rica CR
El Salvador SV
Guatemala GT
Honduras HN
Nicaragua NI
Panama PA
 
Caribbean
Anguilla AI
Antigua and Barbuda AG
Aruba AW
Bahamas BS
Barbados BB
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba BQ
Cayman Islands KY
Cuba CU
Curaçao CW
Dominica DM
Dominican Republic DO
Grenada GD
Guadeloupe GP
Haiti HT
Jamaica JM
Martinique MQ
Montserrat MS
Puerto Rico PR
Saint Barthélemy BL
Saint Kitts and Nevis KN
Saint Lucia LC
Saint Martin (French part) MF
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) SX
Trinidad and Tobago TT
Turks and Caicos Islands TC
Virgin Islands, British VG
Virgin Islands, U.S. VI
 
South America
Argentina AR
Bolivia, Plurinational State of BO
Brazil BR
Chile CL
Colombia CO
Ecuador EC
French Guiana GF
Guyana GY
Paraguay PY
Peru PE
Suriname SR
Uruguay UY
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of VE
 
Atlantic Ocean
Bermuda BM
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) FK
Saint Helena,
Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
SH
South Georgia and
the South Sandwich Islands
GS
 
Southeast Asia
Brunei Darussalam BN
Cambodia KH
Indonesia ID
Lao People's Democratic Republic LA
Malaysia MY
Myanmar MM
Philippines PH
Singapore SG
Thailand TH
Timor-Leste TL
Viet Nam VN
        
Europe
Åland Islands AX
Albania AL
Andorra AD
Austria AT
Belarus BY
Belgium BE
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Bulgaria BG
Croatia HR
Czech Republic CZ
Denmark DK
Estonia EE
Faroe Islands FO
Finland FI
France FR
Germany DE
Gibraltar GI
Greece GR
Guernsey GG
Holy See (Vatican City State) VA
Hungary HU
Iceland IS
Ireland IE
Isle of Man IM
Italy IT
Jersey JE
Latvia LV
Liechtenstein LI
Lithuania LT
Luxembourg LU
Macedonia,
The Former Yugoslav Republic of
MK
Malta MT
Moldova, Republic of MD
Monaco MC
Montenegro ME
Netherlands NL
Norway NO
Poland PL
Portugal PT
Romania RO
San Marino SM
Serbia RS
Slovakia SK
Slovenia SI
Spain ES
Svalbard and Jan Mayen SJ
Sweden SE
Switzerland CH
Ukraine UA
United Kingdom GB
 
Middle East
Bahrain BH
Cyprus CY
Iran, Islamic Republic of IR
Iraq IQ
Israel IL
Jordan JO
Kuwait KW
Lebanon LB
Oman OM
Palestinian Territory, Occupied PS
Qatar QA
Saudi Arabia SA
Syrian Arab Republic SY
Turkey TR
United Arab Emirates AE
Yemen YE
 
Asia
Afghanistan AF
Armenia AM
Azerbaijan AZ
Bangladesh BD
Bhutan BT
China CN
Georgia GE
Hong Kong HK
India IN
Japan JP
Kazakhstan KZ
Korea,
Democratic People's Republic of
KP
Korea, Republic of KR
Kyrgyzstan KG
Macao MO
Mongolia MN
Nepal NP
Pakistan PK
Russian Federation RU
Taiwan, Province of China TW
Tajikistan TJ
Turkmenistan TM
Uzbekistan UZ
        
Africa
Algeria DZ
Angola AO
Benin BJ
Botswana BW
Burkina Faso BF
Burundi BI
Cameroon CM
Cape Verde CV
Central African Republic CF
Chad TD
Congo CG
Congo,
the Democratic Republic of the
CD
Côte d'Ivoire CI
Djibouti DJ
Egypt EG
Equatorial Guinea GQ
Eritrea ER
Ethiopia ET
Gabon GA
Gambia GM
Ghana GH
Guinea GN
Guinea-Bissau GW
Kenya KE
Lesotho LS
Liberia LR
Libya LY
Malawi MW
Mali ML
Mauritania MR
Morocco MA
Mozambique MZ
Namibia NA
Niger NE
Nigeria NG
Rwanda RW
Sao Tome and Principe ST
Senegal SN
Sierra Leone SL
Somalia SO
South Africa ZA
South Sudan SS
Sudan SD
Swaziland SZ
Tanzania, United Republic of TZ
Togo TG
Tunisia TN
Uganda UG
Western Sahara EH
Zambia ZM
Zimbabwe ZW
 
Indian Ocean
Bouvet Island BV
British Indian Ocean Territory IO
Christmas Island CX
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC
Comoros KM
French Southern Territories TF
Heard Island and
McDonald Islands
HM
Madagascar MG
Maldives MV
Mauritius MU
Mayotte YT
Réunion RE
Seychelles SC
Sri Lanka LK
 
Oceania
American Samoa AS
Australia AU
Cook Islands CK
Fiji FJ
French Polynesia PF
Guam GU
Kiribati KI
Marshall Islands MH
Micronesia, Federated States of FM
Nauru NR
New Caledonia NC
New Zealand NZ
Niue NU
Norfolk Island NF
Northern Mariana Islands MP
Palau PW
Papua New Guinea PG
Pitcairn PN
Samoa WS
Solomon Islands SB
Tokelau TK
Tonga TO
Tuvalu TV
United States
Minor Outlying Islands
UM
Vanuatu VU
Wallis and Futuna WF

Map reference places

MIDOP can show place names as a background information on the maps as it help users better locating the geographical area where the earthquake occurred.

These place names shows up in the map based on the zoom level and have been manually selected by the AHEAD working group for all Europe.

As most MIDOP elements, these places can be easily customised changing the corresponding MySQL table, commonly named “ref_places”.

Field Description Type
RecordID *
Record unique identifier. This is not a place identifier, as the same place can be inserted more than one time. text or number
PlaceName * Place name. text
PlaceNameDistant * Place name displayed when the map will be zoomed out. text
PlaceLat * Place latitude in geographical coordinates in decimal degree. decimal
PlaceLon * Place latitude in geographical coordinates in decimal degree. decimal
ZoomLevel * When to show the place on the map. MIDOP accepts one of these 3 zoom values: “large”, “medium” and “detail”. When empty, the place will NOT be plotted. text
GeographicalArea *
Geographical area code where the place record should be used.
Here a compleate list of supported geographical areas.
text
In top of the place information (place name and coordinates), MIDOP requires a couple of special information:

Example of a large zoom. Only those places marked “large” are plotted.

Example of a medium scaled zoom. Both places marked “large” and “medium” are plotted.

Example of a detailed zoom. All places “large”, “medium” and “detail” are plotted.

 

 
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